Football food

soccer food

Sport nutrition, diet or food and drink, for football players is becoming increasingly scientific and recognised for its importance in the game of football. Almost every professional club will have a nutritionist or similar expert advisor for their team. This article covers the most important principles of sport nutrition for amateur players and coaches.

Why is sport nutrition or diet important in football?

Food provides us with energy for our muscles, brain and other organs. Football requires plenty of exercise, and therefore it is important to have energy available to us during the game. The energy available to us at any particular time depends on our blood sugar levels.

If we over-eat, we become over-weight. The heavier we are, the more work our muscles have to do to take us the same distance. This reduces our stamina, and our ability to accelerate quickly. If we under-eat, we can become weak and our overall health can decline, because we are not getting enough nutrients.

A healthy diet improves our general level of health, and can help us recover more quickly from injuries.

Along with a program of fitness training, our diet can help us develop stamina and improve athletic performance.

Diet is essential for our growth, and development.

What to eat and when to eat it

The timing of the meals you consume is important.

On the day of a match the intake of fat and protein should be restricted, as these nutrients require a relatively long time to be digested. Plan to have your pre-competition meal 3-4 hours before the match. Your pre-competition meal should be: high in carbohydrate (this is the fuel that your body needs to perform at the highest level), low in fat, low in protein, low in fibre, not too bulky, and easy to digest. You should consume foods such as: breakfast cereal with low fat milk, toast or bread with jam/honey, sandwiches with banana/honey/jam, pasta/rice with low fat sauce, muffins, baked potato, fruit, energy bars, and orange juice.

A snack high in carbohydrate may be eaten about 2 hours before the match, however the time reference is only a guideline as there are great individual differences in the ability to digest food. It is a good idea for you to experiment with a variation of foods at different times before training sessions. Foods such as toast, bread or crumpets with jam/honey, sweetened cereal and low fat milk, muffins, orange juice and jelly sweets could be consumed.

Once the game is over, fluids should be replaced and carbohydrate should be consumed as soon as possible to promote recovery of glycogen stores. During the cool down you should consume fluids and small snacks, such as jelly sweets, jaffa cakes and jammy dodgers. As soon as possible you should aim to consume a meal which is high in carbohydrates. Foods such as pasta, spaghetti, rice, noodles, low fat pasta sauce, bread, potatoes, and baked beans should be consumed during this period.

Carbohydrate rich foods must be the main source of your diet. Table 1 lists foods, which contain a lot of carbohydrate. You should aim to consume the main bulk of your diet from complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates should not be consumed in large quantities and are more useful as snacks between workouts, or to top up your energy intake. The carbohydrate you consume should be balanced with a healthy intake of protein, low fat and plenty of fruit and vegetables.

soccer food

If you do not consume enough carbs (kcals/energy), then you will not have enough energy to complete the match (or training) and subsequently your performance will suffer, and more importantly you will be more susceptible to injury.


We’ve done good food and we’ve looked at what snacks can boost the body during and after a match or training session. Now lets look at what you should drink.

The water lost from the body during sweating needs to be replaced to stop you getting tired quickly, and also speed up the recovery process – that means feeling fitter and sharper afterwards a lot sooner.

These checks will help players:

* Weight – 1kg of weight lost during a training session is equal to 1 litre of fluid lost.
* The ‘pee test’ – If your urine is dark coloured, it means you need to have a drink. Lots of trips to the toilet, producing lots of clear coloured urine, shows you’ve taken on enough fluid.
* Thirst – Being thirsty is an unreliable indicator of when you need to have a drink. If you’re thirsty, you’re actually already partly dehydrated so if you finish a training session and you’re gasping it’s a giveaway you haven’t taken enough fluid on board.

What’s best to drink?

For footballers, the best fluid to drink is a diluted carbohydrate/electrolyte solution. In plain English, that’s the kind of stuff you’ll find in stuff like Isostar, Lucozade Sport and Gatorade.

When should I drink?

Ideally, it’s best to drink before, during and after a training session, as well as drinking frequently during a match.

How much should I drink?

Only a little – but often. If you drink too much too quickly, you run the risk of getting a stomach upset.

Child abuse in youth soccer

What is abuse and how do I recognise it?

Physical Abuse
Physical Abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, kicking, punching, pinching, biting, choking, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child.

Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer feigns the symptoms of, or deliberately causes ill health to a child whom they are looking after. This is commonly described using terms such as Munchausen’s Syndrome by proxy (now known as Fabricated or Induced Illness).

Examples of physical abuse in youth soccer
May be when a child is forced into training and competition that exceeds the capacity of his or her immature or growing body; or where the child is given drugs to enhance performance or delay puberty.

Sexual Abuse
Sexual Abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative or non-penetrative acts. They may include non-contact activities such as involving children in looking at pornographic material or watching sexual activities, talking to children in a sexually explicit manner or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways.

Examples of sexual abuse in youth soccer
May be when a child is forced into training and competition that exceeds the capacity of his or her immature or growing body; or where the child is given drugs to enhance performance or delay puberty.

Emotional Abuse
Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional ill-treatment of a child likely to cause severe and lasting adverse effects on the child’s emotional development.

It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person.

It may feature expectations being imposed on children that are inappropriate to their age or stage of development.

It may involve causing a child frequently to feel frightened or in danger through constant shouting, taunting or threatening behaviour.

Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of ill-treatment of a child, though it may occur alone.

Examples of emotional abuse in youth soccer
May include subjecting children to constant criticism, name-calling, and sarcasm or bullying. Putting them under consistent pressure to perform to unrealistically high standards is also a form of emotional abuse.

Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basis physical and psychological needs, likely to result in serious impairment of the child’s health or development.

It may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food, shelter and clothing, failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger, or the failure to ensure access to appropriate care or treatment. It may also include neglect of a child’s basic emotional needs such as the refusal to give children love, affection and/or attention, domestic violence or drug/alcohol abuse in the child’s presence.

Examples of neglect in youth soccer
May include not ensuring children are safe; exposing them to undue cold or heat, or exposing them to unnecessary risk of injury.

Bullying is abuse and/or intimidation by a person, persons or an organisation against another or others.

Bullying can be psychological, verbal or physical in nature. It involves an imbalance of power in which the powerful attack the powerless, and occurs over time rather than being a single act. Examples of bullying behaviour can include:

Physical physical assault (pushing, kicking, hitting, punching, etc) or threats of violence

Verbal name calling, insulting others, sarcasm, lying about others, spreading malicious rumours or persistent teasing.

Emotional ignoring/excluding, tormenting, ridiculing, deliberately embarrassing or humiliating others, making people feel different or like an outsider

Racist using racial taunts, gestures or racist graffiti.

Sexual unwanted physical contact, abusive comments or homophobic behaviour.

In an NSPCC study, Child Maltreatment in the UK, boys were found to be most likely to experience physical bullying or threats, or have property stolen or damaged. Girls were more likely to be ignored or not spoken to.

Bullying by adults was a less common experience but one in ten young people reported this. Their most common experiences of adult bullying were being deliberately embarrassed or humiliated, being unfairly treated or verbally abused and being ignored or not spoken to.

Examples of bullying in youth soccer
The competitive nature of sport makes it an ideal environment for bullying behaviour.

The bully can be:

A parent who pushes too hard
A coach who adopts a win at all costs philosophy
A player who intimidates other players or officials
An official who places unfair pressure on a person.

Warm up or lose out

Pre-match warm-up routines are very important. They get your players ready to play, both physically and mentally, and they need to be planned as carefully as a training session.

If you don’t plan an effective pre-match warm-up, you will be putting your players’ health and safety at risk. Recent studies have shown that warming up properly reduces the incidence of injuries in young football players by 30% [1].

Failure to have an effective warm-up before matches will also result in your players starting the game slowly because they are not in the right frame of mind to play.

So if you allow your players to “warm up” by blasting a few shots at your goalkeeper or your pre-match routine consists of making your team run a few laps five minutes before kick off, don’t be surprised if your team is 1-0 down after two minutes and one player down after 10!

Give yourself enough time

Pre-teen players need between 20 and 30 minutes to warm up properly.

If you allocate less time than that, you won’t be able to get in all the essential elements (see below) and if you make young players warm up for too long, they will get bored.

But it’s not sufficient to just tell your parents to get their children to the ground by 9.30am if the game kicks off at 10am. You need to explain why they have to be on time, give them directions to away grounds (or arrange to leave together from one central location) and discourage lateness by making it a rule that if a player doesn’t turn up on time, she won’t be in the starting line-up.

Repetition is good

Don’t introduce new activities into your pre-match routine every week.

Before the match, your players will be (or should be) focused on the game to come so don’t distract them by asking to learn new drills and activities in the 30 minutes or so before kick off.

Try out your warm-up ideas at training sessions – not matches – and when you’ve found a routine that works, stick to it.

Your players will then come to know exactly what they have to do as soon as they arrive at the ground and they should be able to get on with the first activity without any input from you.

Tip: Give your captain the job of getting players ready for the first stage of the warm-up while you shake hands with the match officials and complete all the other little pre-match jobs you have to do.

To stretch or not to stretch?

Very young football players – up to the age of about 10 – do not need to stretch before a game.

From the age of 10, however, a child’s body begins to lose it’s natural elasticity and it’s important that they stretch their muscles in a controlled and progressive way prior to playing football.

What type of stretching is best?

The most recent research has shown that traditional static stretching in a pre-match warm-up can actually decrease a young athlete’s performance and it doesn’t help them avoid injury. [2]

Dynamic stretching – gentle, repeated and controlled stretching of muscles during whole body movement – is recommended instead as it increases body and muscle temperature, improves elasticity and has been shown to greatly reduce the risk of injury. [3]

Making circles with the arms while jogging, for example, loosens the shoulder muscles and pulling one leg up behind you while walking effectively stretches the quadriceps (thigh) muscle.

More about dynamic stretching

Warning: Dynamic stretching should not be confused with ballistic stretching. That’s where parts of the body are made to stretch beyond their normal range of motion, i.e. repeatedly touching your toes from a standing position. This type of stretching can be beneficial when used properly but the dangers far outweigh the possible benefits. So don’t use ballistic stretching with young football players.

Essential elements of a pre-match routine

Pre-match warm-up routines should start slowly and gradually increase to match tempo. For example:

Five minutes jogging, preferably with a ball.

Ten minutes dynamic stretching exercises with or without a ball.

Ten minutes playing a keepaway style game in a small grid.

Don’t forget the warm-down

Many (in fact, most) youth football coaches don’t warm their players down after matches.

But the warm-down is very important. Done properly, it will help your players’ heart rate and body temperature to return to normal and also dissipate the by-products of exercise from the muscles thus helping avoid muscle soreness after the game.

It’s also a good opportunity to chat with your players about the game, check if objectives were achieved and think about how you can play even better in the next match.

And it only takes 10 minutes. My warm-down consists of five minutes slow jogging/walking followed by five minutes of gentle static stretching.


[1] Kirkendall DT, D. J. (2010), Effective injury prevention in soccer, Phys Sportsmed. , Apr;38(1):147-57.

[2] Rod Pope, Skip the warm-up, New Scientist, 164 (2214), p. 23

[3] Rick Meana, New Jersey Youth Soccer Director of Coaching, Soccer Specific Warm Up

Can you play too much soccer?

I had an email from a parent concerned that his children (one U8, the other U10) were playing soccer four or five times per week during the off season, with their teams and in various clinics and that this was perhaps too much.It poses the question, is there such a thing as ‘too much soccer?’

My view is that playing four or five matches and/or training sessions per week is too much at any time of the year, let alone the off season!

For one thing, you have to consider the physical strain that such an amount of exercise exerts on a growing body. Over-training does not allow enough time for minor injuries to ligaments and joints to heal and serious, long-term injuries can result.

Young children are particularly at risk because their bones and ligaments sometimes grow at slightly different rates, causing an imbalance that makes it even easier for small “niggles” to turn into long-term medical conditions. Shin splints (medial tibial stress syndrome or MTSS) is an example.

Interestingly, research by the International Federation of Sports Medicine (FIMS) has shown children are only likely to sustain stress-related injuries if they play too much organised football – they can play with their mates in the park all day, every day without any problems.

This is probably because in the park they can stop and rest when they want to. There’s no coach urging them on from the touch line.

In addition, too much organised football can simply take the fun out of the game. We all need a break… even coaches!

If you want to keep your players active in the off season, why not set up a few goals in your local park and let the children play without any coaching or instruction from adults? Free play is an essential part of a child’s learning process and we shouldn’t be afraid to let go of the reins occasionally.

How to prevent and treat injuries

Children get lots of benefits from playing football.

They learn new skills, how to be a member of a team and how to take responsibility for their own actions. They also make friends, improve their fitness and, if they are coached properly, their raised self-esteem will flow through and enrich other areas of their lives, both at school and at home.

Although youth football is a beneficial and relatively safe sport, the American Journal of Sports Medicine report that young football players in the USA suffer about 120,000 injuries each year sufficiently serious to require a trip to a hospital emergency room.

The total number of football-related injuries among children, including those treated outside of a hospital ER, is estimated to be almost 500,000 per year. These figures are from 2003 and, bearing in mind how many more children play football, they are likely to be considerably higher today.[1]

The most common injuries

The most common type of football-related injury is soft-tissue contusion (a bruise).

Sprains and strains are very nearly as common as bruises while fractures are, thankfully, relatively uncommon, accounting for only about 3% of injuries to children.[2]

How to treat common injuries

1. Strains and sprains

A sprain is an injury to a ligament, one of the bands of tough, fibrous tissue that connects two or more bones at a joint and prevents excessive movement of the joint. An ankle sprain is a very common injury.

A strain is an injury to either a muscle or a tendon. A muscle is a tissue that, when stimulated by nerve messages, contracts and produces movement. A tendon is a tough, fibrous cord of tissue that connects muscle to bone.

How to treat sprains and strains

Both sprains and strains should be treated by the R.I.C.E method.

R = Rest: Rest the injured area to stop further damage and bleeding.

I = Ice: Applied as soon as possible, ice slows down blood circulation which reduces bleeding and swelling. Ice also helps reduce pain.

Note: Applying ice direct to the skin can cause burns. Wrap it in a towel or cloth.

C = Compression: Applied to the area as soon as possible to restrict bleeding at the site of the injury. Pressure compresses blood vessels so preventing blood escaping through open ends of the torn fibres.

Note: Do not apply compression around a whole limb as it will starve other areas of blood.

E = Elevation: Allows gravity to assist the removal of swelling from the injured area and aids recovery.

2. Bruises

A bruise, or contusion, happens when part of the body is struck and the muscle fibres and connective tissue underneath are crushed but the skin doesn’t break. When this occurs, small blood vessels near the skin’s surface rupture and blood collects under the skin. With no place to go, the blood gets trapped, forming a red or purplish mark.

How to treat bruises

Bruises should be treated in the same way but with compressing the injury, i.e., rest, ice and elevate the part of the body affected.

Causes of football injuries

  • Poor coaching
  • Poor technique, timing, inability to control emotion and coaches who push players to be overly aggressive are all factors that can result in injuries to children.

So please make sure you teach your players how to tackle, how to keep calm under pressure and that they play according to the rules.

Training on poor surfaces

Don’t allow your players to train on surfaces that are uneven or slippery and don’t leave it to the referee to check the field on match days. Get to the ground early and check for holes, broken glass, stones or other debris.

Incorrect or no warm-up and/or cool-down

Warm-ups and cool-downs are essential and should not be skipped. Your players are much more likely to suffer strains and sprains if you don’t warm them up and/or cool them down properly.


“The tissues in the body are a lot like a paperclip. If you just keep bending it over and over and over again, eventually that paperclip is going to break.”
Dr Michael Busch, Orthopedic Surgeon, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta

Playing too much, too often or ignoring pain can result in small injuries becoming chronic problems that result in players having take several months off to recover.

Players as young as four and five are often exhorted to “play through the pain” and that it’s good to take a knock for the team.

As coach, you must ensure a player who appears to be in pain stops playing immediately and that they don’t start playing again until you (not their parents) are 100% satisfied the child is happy and fit to resume.

Be sensible regarding training. While you may think that six-year-olds should train three times a week, bear in mind that they also have PE lessons at school, go swimming and play other sports.

Football is a game, not a vocation.

“Youth sports should always be fun. The ‘win at all costs’ attitude of many parents, coaches, professional athletes, and peers can lead to injuries.”
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons


[1] Epidemiology of 1.6 Million Pediatric Soccer-Related Injuries Presenting to US Emergency Departments From 1990 to 2003, Am J Sports Med, February 2007, 35, 288-293.

[2] Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness, Injuries in Youth Soccer: A Subject Review, Pediatrics 2000 105: 659-661

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Treating soccer injuries – the R.I.C.E method

The first 24 – 48 hours after an injury occurs are critical. You must use the RICE method if further damage and pain are to be avoided.

R = Rest rest the injured area to stop further damage and bleeding.

I = Ice should be applied as soon as possible as it slows down blood circulation which reduces bleeding and swelling. Do not apply ice direct to the tissue/skin, wrap it in a towel or cloth so the skin does not burn. Ice also has an analgesic effect.

C = Compression should be applied to the area as soon as possible to restrict bleeding at the injury. Pressure compresses blood vessels so preventing blood escaping through open ends of the torn fibres. Do not apply compression around a whole limb as it will starve other areas of blood.

E = Elevation allows gravity to assist the removal of swelling from the injured area and aids recovery.

Summer soccer – be careful!

Summer football tournaments are usually an enjoyable way to spend a day – even if your team doesn’t get past the qualifying rounds!

However, even the most well run tournament will present some risks to the health and safety of your players. As coach it’s your responsibility to make sure everyone is aware of these risks and takes sensible precautions.

One of the most significant risks (even on a cold day) is dehydration. It might seem obvious to you and me but you need to make sure that the children in your team bring plenty of drink (at least two litres of water or isotonic drink per person) and enough energy rich food to last the day. Not a couple of cans of fizzy pop and some crisps!

Another potentially serious risk is sunburn. I always tell my parents to make sure their children put on sun block before they arrive and bring some more to apply during the day.

By the way, don’t offer your own sun block to your players – they might be allergic to the ingredients.

Take a gazebo or tent so that players can have somewhere to rest out of the sun (or rain). And make sure someone knows how to put it up!

If the worst comes to the worst and you suspect one of your players has been adversely affected by the sun, follow the advice below (provided by St John Ambulance)

Heat Exhaustion



This information is provided by way of general guidance only and if in any doubt and/or where injuries are clearly serious, casualties should be referred to a doctor or hospital. This information is not a substitute for formal First Aid training.

Sports injuries in children

Reproduced by kind permission of the Federation of Holistic Therapists

On the whole, sport is good for children. Not only does it tackle the thorny issue of childhood obesity (and related conditions, such as type II diabetes), participating in competitive sport is also said to improve self-esteem, team spirit, self-discipline and motor skills. But although regular exercise is more favourable than sitting in front of a television screen or computer monitor with a packet of salt and vinegar crisps, some children are pushing their small bodies so hard in order to reach their sporting goals, they are causing themselves serious injuries.

If you wanna be the best…

It would seem that if you really want to make it in sport (or your parents really want you to make it in sport), you have to start training at a very early age. Let us take, for instance, four well-known sporting personalities: Tim Henman started playing tennis when he was just two years old, and was part of a training group run by former British tennis star David Lloyd when he was ten; Tiger Woods was hitting golf balls at the age of three, and won his first tournament at the age of eight; Paula Radcliffe started running when she was seven, and joined Bedford Athletics club when she was nine; and David Beckham was practically kicking a football by the time he was able to stand on his feet, and went on to win the TSB Bobby Charlton Soccer Skills Finals when he was eleven.

With today’s sporting stars starting out so young, it is not surprising that more and more children are being introduced to competitive sport at a very early age. As a result, more children are starting to trickle through to sports clinics and therapists. Although a number of injuries presented will be no different to those we would expect to see in an adult, there will be those that relate specifically to the child’s stage of physical development. So what are the ‘common’ sports injuries to be found in children, how are these caused, and how can their occurrence be reduced or prevented?

Down to the bone

In Sports Injuries: Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention2, the authors suggest that: “a number of sports injuries observed in children are generally related to: (1) their immature skeleton, which can be more vulnerable to injury, and (2) the anatomical imbalances that can occur during the growth spurts” [e.g. when bones lengthen faster than muscle-tendon attachments, resulting in poor flexibility].

Of particular concern is the risk of injury to the ‘growth plates’. A growth plate is an area of developing tissue situated within (or at the end of) a bone. These growth plates are made of cartilage and do not, under normal circumstances, ossify until the child matures and their bones are fully developed. Consequently, children’s bones are weaker and more susceptible to fracture and overuse injuries.2 The likelihood of injury can be further enhanced if the child is experiencing a ‘growth spurt’ (growth spurts typically occur between the ages of 10-14 for girls, 12-16 for boys4).

Different bones also grow at different rates, and this in turn is influenced by the individual status of the child, such as their age, gender, growth rate, and sexual maturity. Such a range of factors render it almost impossible to judge when a child is ‘less’ likely to incur an injury: a good understanding of physical development and a sensible training plan is therefore essential for those responsible for the care of the child during their training.

Extrinsic risk factors

There are other factors, other than physical ones, that can increase the incidence of injuries in children. These include:

Pushy coaches and/or parents
It is well recorded that Andre Agassi used to have a tennis racket taped to his hand when he was just 2 years old, and that his father suspended a tennis ball above his bed for something to ‘fix his eyes on’ as a baby. Whether or not such behaviour could be considered immoral or exploitive, it is quite common in parents and coaches. Many children will be constantly pushed, and even made to ‘play through’ pain (and injury) because someone else is desperate for them to achieve.

Inappropriate Levels of Training
Children training in competitive sports are often unfairly treated as ‘mini’ adults. This can result in long hours of intense training that their little bodies simply aren’t physically or mentally mature enough to cope with.

Pitching them against bigger players
Children are often pitched against others of the same age who are their superior in terms of size, strength and skill. This could easily result in injury and low self-esteem.

Radically changing training conditions
If a football coach suddenly introduces the child to a different playing surface or piece of equipment, the child should be given adequate time and/or training to adapt.

Ignoring participation in other physical activities
If the child is taking part in other activities (e.g. P.E. lessons) that may affect their performance, this needs to be taken into consideration.

Reducing/ Preventing Injuries

Injuries sustained during childhood can have serious, long-term implications (see the table below). Ideally, the risks posed to children need to be reduced or minimised where possible. Allowances should be made for the fact that they are physically and mentally less able to endure the training loads placed on adults. Some key points to consider:

  • The physique of some children make them ill-suited to certain sports (e.g. someone who is large and inflexible will not make the ideal candidate for gymnastics)
  • Ideally, the child should be introduced to a variety of different sports to see which one they are best suited to and enjoy
  • The child needs to be physically fit before they commence training
  • Training should be modified when the child is experiencing a growth spurt
  • Good coaching is essential. The child needs to be taught how to perform (and to fall) correctly
  • Equipment, circuits, and areas of ‘play’ should be scaled down accordingly
  • Children need to be supplied with protective gear that fits properly

Warm-ups and warm-downs are just as crucial to children as they are to adults. It also gets them into good training habits at an early age

It is up to those responsible for the child to ensure that they are sufficiently hydrated and protected against sunburn during training sessions as the child may not appreciate the seriousness of such things. Equally, the coach needs to know when it is time to stop training

Again, it is up to the coaches and parents to ensure that competitive events entered are well organised and do not pose any undue risks to the child
The child needs adequate rest in between training sessions and in the event of injury.

References/ Suggested Further Reading

1 DiDiori, John P. (1999) Overuse injuries in children and adolescents. The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Vol 27; No. 1. (
2 Bird, S., Black, N., Newton, P. (1997) Children and sports injuries. Sports Injuries: Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. Stanley Thornes Ltd. ISBN 0 7487 3181 4
3 NIAMS (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. USA) (2000) Childhood Sports Injuries and Their Prevention: A Guide for Parents
4 Briggs, James. (2001) Children in Sport/ Child Abuse in Sport. Sports Therapy: Theoretical and Practical Thoughts and Considerations. Corpus Publishing Ltd ISBN 1 903333 04 0

Copyright Federation of Holistic Therapists 2005